Urinalysis is a topic covered in the Davis's Lab & Diagnostic Tests.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Davis’s Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests Online, powered by Unbound Medicine, provides nurses and students access to 400+ test monographs containing reference ranges, indications, patient preparation and result interpretation. Explore these free sample topics:


-- The first section of this topic is shown below --



Common Use:
To screen urine for multiple substances such as infection, blood, sugar, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrates, and protein to assist in diagnosing disorders such as kidney and liver disease as well as assess hydration status.

Urine from an unpreserved, random specimen collected in a clean plastic collection container.

Normal Findings:
(Method: Macroscopic evaluation by dipstick and microscopic examination) Urinalysis comprises a battery of tests including a description of the color and appearance of urine; measurement of specific gravity and pH; and semiquantitative measurement of protein, glucose, ketones, urobilinogen, bilirubin, hemoglobin, nitrites, and leukocyte esterase. Urine sediment may also be examined for the presence of crystals, casts, renal epithelial cells, transitional epithelial cells, squamous epithelial cells, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), bacteria, yeast, sperm, and any other substances excreted in the urine that may have clinical significance. Examination of urine sediment is performed microscopically under high power, and results are reported as the number seen per high-power field (hpf). The color of normal urine ranges from light yellow to deep amber. The color depends on the patient’s state of hydration (more concentrated samples are darker in color), diet, medication regimen, and exposure to other substances that may contribute to unusual color or odor The appearance of normal urine is clear. Cloudiness is sometimes attributable to the presence of amorphous phosphates or urates as well as blood, WBCs, fat, or bacteria.

ProteinLess than 20 mg/dL
UrobilinogenUp to 1 mg/dL
Leukocyte esteraseNegative
Specific gravity1.005–1.03

Microscopic Examination
RBCsLess than 5/hpf
WBCsLess than 5/hpf
Renal cellsNone seen
Transitional cellsNone seen
Squamous cellsRare; usually no clinical significance
CastsRare hyaline; otherwise, none seen
Crystals in acid urineUric acid, calcium oxalate, amorphous urates
Crystals in alkaline urineTriple phosphate, calcium phosphate, ammonium biurate, calcium carbonate, amorphous phosphates
Bacteria, yeast, parasitesNone seen

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --